J. Cetacean Res. Manage. 2020-09-10T00:00:00+01:00 Jessica Rowley Open Journal Systems <div><strong><em>Under Construction</em></strong></div> <div>Journal of Cetacean Research and Management</div> <p><span class="TextRun Highlight SCXW236802037 BCX0" lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW236802037 BCX0">Th</span></span><span class="TextRun Highlight SCXW236802037 BCX0" lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW236802037 BCX0">e Journal of Cetacean Research and Management</span></span><span class="TextRun Highlight SCXW236802037 BCX0" lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW236802037 BCX0"> is</span></span><span class="TextRun Highlight SCXW236802037 BCX0" lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW236802037 BCX0"> an</span></span><span class="TextRun Highlight SCXW236802037 BCX0" lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW236802037 BCX0"> </span></span><span class="TextRun Highlight SCXW236802037 BCX0" lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW236802037 BCX0">open access </span></span><span class="TextRun Highlight SCXW236802037 BCX0" lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW236802037 BCX0">peer-reviewed </span></span><span class="TextRun Highlight SCXW236802037 BCX0" lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW236802037 BCX0">publication</span></span><span class="TextRun Highlight SCXW236802037 BCX0" lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW236802037 BCX0"> containing original scientific papers on the conservation and management of whales, dolphins and porpoises. The Journal is accompanied by an annual Supplement which contains the report of the IWC Scientific Committee meeting and intersessional workshops held during the relevant period. There are also a number of topic-based Special Issues.?</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW236802037 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:259}"> </span></p> <p><span class="EOP SCXW236802037 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:259}"> </span></p> Blue whales off the Southern coast of Sri Lanka during the Southwest Monsoon Season 2020-02-17T17:45:37+00:00 Grace Russell Marcus Bridge Maja Nimak-Wood <p class="western" lang="en-GB" align="justify"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">Observations of 37 individual blue whales (</span></span><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><em>Balaenoptera musculus</em></span></span><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">) were recorded off the southern coast of Sri Lanka during the Southwest Monsoon Season (SWM). Sightings were made </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">during </span></span></span><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">a scientific geophysical survey campaign conducted in July and August 2017. Whilst blue whales are regularly recorded on the continental slope of southern Sri Lanka during the Northeast Monsoon Season (NEM) (December - March) and during the two inter-monsoonal periods (March - April and September - October), limited data is available for the SWM (May - September) mostly due to unfavourable weather conditions and very little survey effort. In the northern hemisphere blue whales undertake seasonal migrations from higher latitude feeding grounds to lower latitude breeding and wintering areas. However it has been suggested that a population of blue whales in the Northern India Ocean (NIO) remains in lower latitudes year round taking advantage of the rich upwelling areas off Somalia, southwest Arabia and western Sri Lanka. Data from this study nevertheless support a theory that a certain number of individuals remain off the southern coast off Sri Lanka during the SWM, suggesting that the productivity in this region is sufficient to support their year-round presence. This study therefore fills a knowledge gap regarding the presence and movement of blue whales in the NIO highlighting the importance of data obtained from platforms of opportunity. <br /></span></span></p> 2020-09-10T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 IWC Journal of Cetacean Research and Management A note on strandings of Bryde's whales (Balaenoptera edeni) in the southwestern Atlantic 2020-02-18T11:47:07+00:00 Eduardo Cabral Casado Lima <p>The aim of the present study is to trace a diagnosis of Bryde´s whale (Balaenoptera edeni) strandings in jurisdictional Brazilian waters through the compilation of published records and those conveyed in communication channels. During 1972 and 2015, 74 strandings were documented between the states of Rio Grande do Sul and Rio de Janeiro, Bahia and Maranhão. The results point out statistically significant differences between the frequencies of strandings in relation to Brazilian regions (χ² = 103.17), with the highest abundance found for the Southeast region (71.62%). Statistically significant differences were also observed between stranding frequency and sexual maturity (χ² = 12.31), with a higher abundance for sexually mature females(54.25%). No statistically significant difference between the stranding frequency in relation to seasonality (χ² = 2.34) was observed. Regarding sex, no statistically significant difference between stranding frequency for males and females was found (χ²=3.12). A trend of increasing B.edeni strandings was observed from the 1980s onwards, by the use of a simple linear regression. This may be due to population growth of the species, increased monitoring throughout the Brazilian coast, and/or increased anthropogenic threats. Thus,stranding monitoring is important for the adoption of conservation measures for this species, as well as for the determination of regional stocks through genetic analyses.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2020-09-10T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 IWC Journal of Cetacean Research and Management Translocation of trapped Bolivian river dolphins (Inia boliviensis) 2016-05-17T16:57:50+01:00 Enzo Aliaga- Rossel Mariana Escobar-ww <p>The Bolivian river dolphin (<em>Inia boliviensis</em>), locally known as bufeo is an endemic species and categorized as Vulnerable in the <em>Red Book of Vertebrates of Bolivia</em>. Despite the fact that the Bolivian river dolphin is the only cetacean in land-locked Bolivia, knowledge about its conservation status and vulnerability to anthropogenic actions is extremely deficient. We report on the rescue and translocation of Bolivian river dolphins trapped in a shrinking segment of the Pailas River, Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Anthropogenic activities to alter the landscape and create agricultural land in the area include significant deforestation and irrigation channel construction and are likely to be a contributory factor causing the entrapment of these Bolivian River dolphins. The dolphins were trapped in shallow water in a 1 km section of river. Dry season water levels were rapidly falling and this section of river dried up completely. We collaborated with several institutions, authorities, and volunteers to translocate 26 Bolivian river dolphins, including calves, juveniles, and pregnant females. The dolphins were captured and transported using well-padded boats and vehicles and released into the <em>Rio Grande</em>. Each dolphin was accompanied by biologists who assured their welfare. No dolphins were injured or died during this process. If habitat degradation continue, it is likely that events in which river dolphins become trapped in South America may happen more frequently in the future.</p><p><strong><br /></strong></p> 2020-09-10T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Dolphin bounty hunting in the history of the Italian fishery 2020-02-17T18:23:09+00:00 Giorgio Bavestrello Riccardo Cattaneo-Vietti Eleonora Meliada Guido Gnone <p>In the Mediterranean, at the end of the 19<sup>th</sup>century, dolphins were identified as pest species for their disruptive actions during some fishing phases. Numerous fishermen organizations asked for permission to hunt dolphins, and the killing of a dolphin was often institutionally favoured by several national laws. We provide a picture of the systematic culling campaigns for dolphins in Italy up to the absolute prohibition of capture, analysing the governmental measures implemented against dolphins, the official number of individuals killed and their value (in Italian liras) in 11 Italian Maritime Compartments from 1927 to 1937. Officially, over 6,700 dolphins were killed in 10 years along the Italian coast and rewards distributed for about 360,160 Italian liras, which, at the current exchange rate, correspond to 355,000 euros, for a contribute of about 52 euros for each dolphin. Considering that the meat was consumed both at the family level or sold, mainly as salted and dried meat, the dolphin hunting could be considered a profitable activity in those years for the fishermen. Due to the scarce information available on the size of the dolphin populations around the Italian coast, it is difficult to estimate the impact of the bounty fishing on the Italian populations during the studied period. Nevertheless,it is possible to hypothesizethat it could have affected all the local recruitment, producing an effect on the local population far from being negligible.</p> 2020-09-10T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 IWC Journal of Cetacean Research and Management Abundance and seasonal distribution of the Southern North Carolina estuarine system stock (USA) of common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) 2020-02-10T18:54:12+00:00 Daniela Silva <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>Under the U.S. Marine Mammal Protection Act, bottlenose dolphins [<em>Tursiops truncatus</em>] along the United States Atlantic coast are managed as a series of 17 distinct stocks. &nbsp;To determine the status of each stock, the Potential Biological Removal (PBR) is compared with anthropogenic removals, primarily as a result of fisheries bycatch.&nbsp; Estimates of abundance, with associated measures of variance, are required to generate the PBR for each stock.&nbsp; The objectives of the current study were to estimate abundance for the Southern North Carolina Estuarine System Stock (SNCESS) of bottlenose dolphins and to refine the southern boundary of this stock.&nbsp; To meet these objectives, photo-identification surveys were conducted during the summer and winter of 2014 in estuarine and nearshore coastal waters in southern North Carolina.&nbsp; The surveys extended 25km south of the defined southern stock boundary, along the northern South Carolina coast.&nbsp; One mark and one recapture survey were conducted for each season. &nbsp;Each survey was completed in four or five days and covered over 300km of survey tracklines. &nbsp;Dorsal fin images were processed and managed using FinBase, and only images of suitable quality and distinctiveness were used for estimates of abundance.&nbsp; A three-step decision tree was used to assign each dolphin group to either the SNCESS or an adjacent coastal stock, based on sighting location, ranging patterns derived from matches to photo-identification catalogs, and statistical modeling.&nbsp; Only sightings classified as SNCESS were used to estimate stock abundance.&nbsp; Abundance estimates were calculated using three methods: &nbsp;the Chapman modification to the Lincoln-Petersen method, package Rcapture in Program R, and program MARK 6.2.&nbsp; The most parsimonious estimate was generated using the package Rcapture for program R, with the bias corrected M<sub>0</sub> model yielding an estimate of 283 dolphins (CV = 0.33, 95% CI 170-396) in the summer of 2014.&nbsp; The distribution of SNCESS dolphins shifted south in the winter and several individuals were observed up to 70km southwest of the currently recognized southern boundary.&nbsp; The results of this study support the current definition of the SNCESS but suggest revisions to the southern boundary. &nbsp;The SNCESS is the smallest bottlenose dolphin stock off the east coast of the USA and is at risk of population decline as a result of fisheries-related mortality.</p> 2020-09-10T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 IWC Journal of Cetacean Research and Management Cetacean diversity of Mauritius 2020-02-17T17:42:35+00:00 Imogen Webster Vic Cockcroft Adele Cadinouche Annette Huggins <p>There is limited information concerning the cetaceans inhabiting the coastal waters of Mauritius.&nbsp; This document details the sightings of cetaceans encountered during April 2008 – September 2014. Boat-based surveys were conducted throughout the year, primarily focusing on spinner and bottlenose dolphin populations that are important for the local dolphin-watching industry.&nbsp; More than 1246 hours over 749 days of surveys were spent searching for cetaceans.&nbsp; All cetaceans encountered were recorded. During 2013 and 2014, dedicated diversity surveys were conducted and 2443.6km of search effort was covered around the islands. The encounter rate was 0.025 cetacean sightings/km. Over the total study period 13 species were recorded from 1459 sightings. Species included: <em>Megaptera novaeangliae, Stenella longirostris, Tursiops aduncus, Tursiops truncatus, Globicephala macrorhynchus, Stenella attenuata, Physeter macrocephalus, Mesoplodon densirostris, Feresa attenuata, Peponocephala electra, Grampus griseus</em> and <em>Ziphius </em><em>cavirostris</em>. In addition, there were strandings of <em>Kogia sima</em> and <em>Ziphius </em><em>cavirostris</em>. The most common species encountered were spinner dolphins, Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins, humpback whales and sperm whales. As expected only humpback whales showed any seasonality in monthly encounter rates (Kruskal-Wallis H = 42.39, H<sub>c </sub>= 54.25, p &lt; 0.001). The overall Shannon diversity index was 0.58 (95% CI 0.57–0.60) though this ranged between 0.77 in 2009 to 0.25 in 2014. The Shannon index value for the diversity study was 0.83 (95% CI 0.74–0.91). This study demonstrates the richness of the waters around Mauritius and the importance of the area for beaked whales, migrating humpback whales and the presence of resident sperm whales.</p> 2020-09-10T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 IWC Journal of Cetacean Research and Management Spatial and temporal variation in body mass and the blubber, muscle and visceral fat content of North Atlantic common minke whales 2020-02-18T14:51:48+00:00 Thorvaldur Gunnlaugsson <p class="Abstracttext">The exponent for predicting total body mass from length has been studied in many species and here data on common minke whales from areas in the North Atlantic is added from both Icelandic and Norwegian research catches. The exponent was found to be not significantly different from 3. In addition seasonal changes in body mass and in the parts of blubber, muscle and visceral fat are reported. The exponent for how blubber mass increases with length is lower than 3. In all cases a significant increase over the season was detected, in particular for the mature animals, and also in girth measurements, particularly at the posterior part of the body. Pregnant females had significantly more blubber than other whales. These results agree with studies on blubber thickness measurements and tissue energy content of Icelandic baleen whales and observed changes in the ecosystem around Iceland during the research period.</p> 2020-09-11T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Cetacean Research and Management Photo-identification of individual Southern Hemisphere humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) using all available natural marks: 2020-02-17T18:06:26+00:00 Trish Franklin Wally Franklin Lyndon Brooks Peter Harrison Dan Burns Jason Holmberg John Calambokidis <p>Misidentification errors in capture-mark recapture studies of humpback whales (<em>Megaptera novaeangliae</em>) related to poor quality of photographs as well as changes in natural marks can seriously affect population dynamics parameter estimates and derived estimates of population size when using sophisticated modelling techniques. In this study we used an innovative photo-identification matching system to investigate and examine the long-term stability and/or changes in natural marks on ventral-tail flukes, dorsal fin shapes and lateral body marks from a sample of 79 individual humpback whales, resighted in 2 to 11 years over timespans ranging from 2 to 21 years. A binary logistic mixed effects model, on a pair-matched sample of the 79 individual whales, found no significant differences in the proportions of ventral-tail fluke marks, dorsal fin shapes and lateral body marks, that displayed changes in primary and/or secondary characteristics over years (F=0.939, df=1/156, p =0.334). The results of this study substantiate the value and reliability of using primary and secondary natural marks on the ventral-tail flukes, in conjunction with dorsal fin shapes and secondary lateral body marks as double-tags. This provides a means of maximising observations of individual humpback whales over years, while minimising and managing misidentification errors in the photo-identification matching process, thus significantly improving modelling outcomes.</p> 2020-10-14T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 IWC Journal of Cetacean Research and Management Chronic ocean noise and cetacean population models 2019-11-29T17:18:53+00:00 Rob Williams Danielle Cholewiak Christopher W. Clark Christine Erbe Craig George Robert Lacy Russell Leaper Sue Moore Leslie New Chris Parsons Howard Rosenbaum Teri Rowles Mark Simmonds Raphaela Stimmelmayr Robert S. Suydam Andrew Wright <p>Recent years have seen rapid development of tools and approaches to model population consequences of disturbance in several marine mammal populations from high-amplitude, acute sound sources. Ocean noise from shipping and other maritime activities is now recognized as a chronic, habitat-level stressor. In order to understand population consequences of chronic ocean noise to whales and their populations, advances are needed in several key areas, which are explored in this review. One tractable way to predict population-level consequences of noise-mediated disruption of feeding, which can include both behavioural responses and foraging opportunities lost due to acoustic masking. Masking may be defined as both the process and the amount by which the threshold of hearing of one sound is raised by the presence of another. Parameterising any such model requires information on sensitivity and vulnerability of large whales to ocean noise, in which sensitivity is the degree to which marine features respond to a stressor (e.g., behavioural responses to noise or proportional reduction in foraging efficiency due to masking), and vulnerability is the probability that whales are exposed noise to which they are sensitive. Efforts are underway to provide much-needed information on hearing sensitivity in baleen whales, the role of acoustic cues in foraging, and deriving links between long-term variability in prey availability and whale demography. As this information becomes available, we expect rapid advancement on modelling population consequences of acoustic masking in baleen whales, because those efforts can leverage substantial investments in statistical methodological approaches to model population consequences of disturbance. Pathways of effects other than via foraging disruption (e.g., stress hormones affecting reproduction or disease) are possible, but we illustrate potential ways to proceed based on this tractable approach, namely noise-mediated impacts on foraging. This report highlights case studies of local, national, international, and inter-governmental efforts to monitor and reduce the contribution of global shipping to ocean ambient noise. The following outlines approaches that can be used to assess the risk to baleen whale recovery of existing levels of ocean noise, and consequently, predict the benefits likely to arise from reducing chronic ocean noise.</p> 2020-11-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 J. Cetacean Res. Manage. Review of the assessment of two stocks of Antarctic minke whales (eastern Indian Ocean and western South Pacific) 2020-02-18T11:35:37+00:00 Hiroto Murase Debra Palka Andre Punt Luis Pastene Toshihide Kitakado Koji Matsuoka Takashi Hakamada Hiroshi Okamura Takeharu Bando Tsutomu Tamura Kenji Konishi Genta Yasunaga Tatsuya Isoda Hidehiro Kato <p>An in-depth assessment of an eastern Indian stock (I-stock) and a western South Pacific stock (P-stock) of Antarctic minke whales distributed between 35°E and 145°W was carried out by the Scientific Committee of the International Whaling Commission (IWC/SC) from 2001 to 2014 using data mainly collected from 1985 to 2004. This paper is a synthesis and summary of the outcomes of that assessment, although research on this species has been ongoing since 2014. The assessment integrates information from a wide range of topics including systematics, survey methods, direct catches, population structure, abundance, spatial distribution, biological information, population dynamics, species interactions, pollutants and interactions with marine debris. At least two stocks (I-stock and P-stock) are found between 35°E–145°W, with a soft boundary between 100°E and 165°E. Two sets of agreed circumpolar estimates of abundance from IWC assessment cruises (termed ‘CPII’ – 1985/86–1990/91, and ‘CPIII’ – 1991/92–2003/04) were obtained; a null hypothesis of no change in overall abundance between CPII and CPIII was not rejected. The results of a Statistical Catch-at-Age Analysis (SCAA) applied to the two stocks revealed that (1) abundance increased from 1930 until the mid-1970s, and<br />declined over the period from the mid-1970s until the late-1980s and (2) trends in abundance over the most recent 20 years were relatively flat for the I-stock but decreasing for the P-stock. Although the primary focus at the start of this assessment was to try to understand abundance trends during the 1985–2004 period, it expanded to increasing knowledge on the life history of this species. The assessment also advanced many aspects of analytical methods.</p> 2020-11-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 J. Cetacean Res. Manage. A first acoustic density estimate for sperm whales in Irish offshore waters 2020-02-17T17:59:49+00:00 Jonathan Gordon Douglas Gillespie Russell Leaper Arthur Lee Lindsay Porter Joanne O'Brien Rossa Meade Oliver Ó Cadhla Simon Berrow <p>Previous studies off western Ireland have suggested that substantial numbers of, mainly male, sperm whales may be found in these habitats. Whaling vessels operating from shore stations in Ireland in the early 20th century frequently caught sperm whales in oceanic waters. It is likely that this North Atlantic region contains important foraging habitats for this species, and that mature males must also migrate through this area moving between breeding grounds to the south and other feeding areas further north. Increasingly, these offshore waters are being utilised and potentially impacted by human industrial activities. For example, as inshore resources are depleted and technology improves, both the commercial fishing and the oil and gas industry are becoming more active in deeper waters beyond the continental margin. It is important therefore to better understand the biology and ecology of sperm whales in these more remote areas. However, their offshore location and deep diving habits, together with weather constraints in the exposed Atlantic, make research difficult. New sperm whale density estimates are reported using data from six seasonal passive<br />acoustic surveys carried out in two successive years (2015 and 2016). These covered a corridor approximately 110km wide which bounded a major portion of Ireland’s continental shelf break. Towed hydrophone line-transect methodologies were used, which have proven to be highly effective for surveying sperm whales in offshore waters and in poor weather conditions. Target motion analysis was applied to calculate the ranges of vocalising whales from the survey tracklines and the effective strip half-width calculated across all surveys was 7,958m. The study area was surveyed<br />in three blocks and animal densities within these blocks varied between 1 and 4.6 individuals per 1,000km2 (CV 0.34 and 0.21 respectively) with an overall mean density in waters deeper than 300m of 3.2 individuals per 1,000km2<br />(CV 0.04). These robust density estimates are the first of their kind for Irish waters and are similar to those reported in other Atlantic areas considered significant for this species. These results emphasise the significance of this region as sperm whale habitat. The results of this study should be used to inform the future sustainable development and management of Ireland’s offshore Atlantic.</p> 2020-11-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 J. Cetacean Res. Manage. A note on minke whales (Cetacea: Balaenopteridae) in Uruguay: strandings review 2020-02-17T17:15:48+00:00 Eduardo Juri Meica Valdivia Paulo Cesar Simoes-Lopes Alfredo Le Bas <p>The minke whale is the smallest of the living rorquals and is widely distributed in the tropical, temperate and polar waters of both hemispheres. In the western Southwest Atlantic Ocean there are two currently recognised species, the dwarf form of the common minke whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata unnamed subsp. and the Antarctic minke whale B. bonaerensis. All stranding records and collected specimens of minke whale on the coast of Uruguay were reviewed and analysed. Between 1962 and 2018, 33 records were gathered in a non-systematic way, 22 specimens of B. acutorostrata and 11 of B. bonaerensis. It was found that most animals were discovered alive or recently dead and assigned as neonates/young calves. This supports the hypothesis that Uruguayan coasts are part of an important region for reproduction and breeding for the species.</p> 2020-11-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 J. Cetacean Res. Manage. Echolocation inter-click interval variation among specific behaviours in free-ranging bottlenose dolphins from the coast of Uruguay 2020-02-20T14:03:14+00:00 Javier Tellechea <p>To assess whether behaviour can be inferred from echolocation trains (inter-click intervals) this study examines acoustic recordings of free-ranging bottlenose dolphins using Passive Acoustic Monitoring (PAM). Inter-click intervals from 17 groups of free-ranging bottlenose dolphins were monitored over a 36 day period in an area within the Cerro Verde (Marine Protected Area), Uruguay. Simultaneous visual observations were made from shore nearby. Results show that inter-click intervals in the echolocation trains had significant differences for three specific behaviours: feeding, socialising and travelling. The natural environment was quiet, with no disturbances in the immediate vicinity from boats, drones or other man-made noises.</p> 2020-12-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 J. Cetacean Res. Manage. Effectiveness of current protection for Maui dolphin 2020-02-18T15:00:45+00:00 Elisabeth Slooten <p>This paper describes changes to protected areas for Maui dolphin implemented in 2012 and 2013 and estimates their effectiveness in reducing bycatch. An Expert Panel of New Zealand and international scientists, convened by the New Zealand government in 2012, estimated that five Maui dolphins were killed in fishing gear each year – one in trawl fisheries and four in gillnet fisheries. The estimated number of trawl mortalities is unchanged, as no additional protection from trawling has been implemented. The number of gillnet mortalities per year is estimated to have decreased to at best two per year.</p> 2020-12-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Cetacean Research and Management